Radon is a colorless, odorless and tasteless inert gas, classified amongst the noble gases. Its major source of production is the breakdown and radioactive decomposition of elements such as Uranium, Thorium, Plutonium, and Radium under beneath the surface of the Earth. Soon afterward its production, it starts to undergo decay itself producing a part of further radioactive elements termed as radon daughter element and a part of radiation.
There are two major types of radon poisoning namely
- Radon Poisoning in Air
- Radon Poisoning in Water.
Due to its signature properties, it is very difficult to detect radon, therefore, radon detection tests need to be utilized in this regard. If the test indicates a radon fixation higher than 4 picocuries per liter in the air and 4000 picocuries per liter in water then a procedure called “Radon Mitigation” needs to be performed to reduce these levels.
As the case with radon poisoning, similarly there are two further types of radon mitigation as well:
- Radon Mitigation In Air:
Radon is a natural component of the atmosphere. But it is naturally present in the air surrounding us in such a small concentration that it is barely noticeable. Radon mitigation in the air has an advantage over radon mitigation in water. In case of air, the whole batch of air can be purified all at once, however, in the case of radon poisoning in water the whole batch cannot be cleaned beforehand and is done simultaneously.
Some popular techniques for Radon Mitigation are:
Ventilation is the most commonly used method for radon mitigation in the air. It allows the radon ridden air to be drawn outside and replaces it with fresh air. There are various kinds of ventilations and natural and forced ventilations. The type of ventilation chosen depends on the severity of the problem as well as miscellaneous factors such as the weather conditions and the architecture of the house.
- Sealing Openings:
The entrance of radon particles through gaps in the plumbing system and cracks in the ground is a huge concern. In order to stop this, these openings are sealed using cement and plaster. However, this method is not very effective as after a while the radon even permeates through these seals.
- Radon Mitigation In Water:
There are not many options available when it comes to radon mitigation of water. There are only two methods which are known to be effective:
In this technique air at a very high pressure is aimed at the poisoned water body and is thoroughly mixed which makes the radon particles settle down leaving the water clean again. After the completion of the process, the pressure of the water is neutralized to bring it back to its original state.
Filtration involves the use of a device containing granular activated carbon. It filters the radon particles from the water body before use. The filtration device needs a bit of maintenance as it requires a filter change every now and then.